Management Glossary

  Terms beginning with a
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American Society for Quality. Web site:


Anything that has a realizable value, whether or not that value is expected to be realized in the short-term.

asset account
The accounting record in which the results of transactions affecting an asset or (more likely) a class of assets are accumulated.
Contributed by:
See: asset

asynchronous collaboration
Two or more people interacting cooperatively to achieve one or more objectives, but the efforts of the individuals does not occur simultaneously. Instead, the interaction occurs using a medium, such as email, regular mail or merely filing documents in a location accessible to all participants, that does not require the participating individuals to be in direct contact.
Contributed by: Managerwise Staff
See: collaboration

asynchronous learning

An education or training program that does not require the instructor and learner to be present in the same place at the same time. Examples include training that is delivered in a course provided on a CD, CD-ROM or as files on the Web. Questions can be answered through email exchanges between the instructor and learner.

Asynchronous learning has the advantage of being able to deliver courses to a large number of people, while allowing each learner to proceed at his or her own pace. It also makes it easy for companies to deliver "just-in-time learning," so they can train each employee in a particular skill set just when the employee needs it. In contrast, classroom training usually requires training a number of employees at once or having to adhere to a third-party's training schedule. But teaching skills too long before employees need those skills will lead to the employees forgetting some of what they learned; and having to postpone work because an employee doesn't yet have the necessary skills may result in an employer forfeiting some opportunities.

Contributed by: Managerwise Staff

The reduction in staff numbers as a result of employees leaving, as a result of events such as resignations, retirements and deaths, and not being replaced. Firings and layoffs are not considered to be attrition. For example, saying that desired head-count reductions will be achieved through attrition usually means that, while the total number of employees in the company will be reduced over time, nobody will be fired or laid off.
Contributed by: ManagerWise Staff
See: lay-off

authoritarian culture
A corporate culture in which all or most of the authority is retained at the top, typically with one or a few people. In an authoritarian culture, employees at the lower level of the hierarchy have little or no decision-making power and are expected to conform strictly to the organization's policies, procedures, processes and norms.
Contributed by: Managerwise Staff
See: autocratic leadership

authorized capital
The total number of shares that a company is currently allowed to sell.
Contributed by: ManagerWise Staff

autocratic leadership
The head of a company or a group within the company assumes full responsibility for setting policies for the company or group, directs all employees of the company or group and generally remains aloof from subordinates.
Contributed by: Managerwise Staff
See: authoritarian culture

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